The 15th Century was the end of the Middle Ages in Europe and the time when the Renaissance had spread to the whole of Europe. The Geocentric theory of the Ancient Greek philosopher Ptolemy was re-introduced into Europe. Niccolò Machiavelli was born.
Printing on paper with movable type also started in Europe. This made Books and other written material easier to get, encouraged people to Learn to read, it also increased Knowledge and stimulated Science. The Ottoman Empire expanded in Eastern Europe. Jews were Expelled from many parts of Europe.