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Down syndrome (DS or DNS; unofficially sometimes called Down's Syndrome), a.k.a. trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is often associated with physical growth, cognitive and speech delays, along with characteristic facial features, and mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Most people with Down Syndrome have lower-than-average intelligence quotient (IQ), also some have been shown to have higher-than-average intelligence. Historically, the word "mongolism" has been used to describe people with Down syndrome. Today, it’s considered offensive.

Down Syndrome can be detected via prenatal screening tests in pregnant mothers. In Iceland, this has come at a cost, as nearly all pregnant mothers positively prescreened for Down Syndrome have resulted in abortion. Lawmakers in Ohio tried to outlaw abortions for pregnant mothers positively screened with babies having Down Syndrome in late-2017. However, a federal judge blocked this ban request in February 2018.

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