Galileo understood science better than the Pope. Especially Galeleo understood Astronomy. Round 1609-1610 Galelio pointed a telescope at the sky  and found evidence that the Earth orbits the Sun among other things. That's called the Heliocentric theory.
Conservatives in the Roman Catholic Church thought that couldn't be true because Bronze Age and Iron Age peasants who wrote the Old Testament wrote things that suggest that the sun goes round the Earth etc. Some even decided the Devil was tempering with the telescope and refused to look through it. It all came to a head when Galileo refused to show Christian humility and insulted the Pope.
- Calling Non-Christians fools is OK, The Bible does that.
- But Galileo dared to call the Pope Simplicius.
Whatever the Roman Catholic Church said or did the Earth carries on orbiting the sun. While the vast majority of Catholics have accepted Galileo, the Church did not believe him until the 1990s. Wow.
- Galileo: the Telescope & the Laws of Dynamics
- Historical Notes: Galileo insulted the Pope, not the Church
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