Jim Crow was a system used mainly in The South of the United States that forced white people and African-Americans to have separate facilities, with the facilities for black people being much worse than what white people had. Black children went to worse schools and got worse education which made it very much harder for black people to improve their lives and avoid poverty. Black people faced discrimination in public baths, restaurants, hotels etc., one particularly humiliating case of discrimination was public transport. Until the middle of the 20th Century the Federal Government did too little to prevent segregation.
There was a humiliating etiquette, for example white people called black adults by their first name, as if they were Children, while black people had to show more respect and call white people Mr/Mrs/Miss followed by the second name.
- Little Rock, Arkansas There was a hard fought battle to desegregate schools there.
There is much more information in the links below.