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The Roman Republic was an ancient civilization that preceded the Roman Empire. They fought with the Punics (Carthaginians) and nearly got conquered but the military genius Hannibal who sucked at diplomacy was clueless what to do after decimating the Roman armies and defences and hadn't seized Rome even though he perhaps could have.
The government was made out of 300 members of the Senate. They elected 2 consul members who managed the senate who could veto laws. Sound familiar? Also during wartime they could elect a dictator who had absolute power but had to return power once peace came.
The Republic fell because 1/3 of the population were slaves and the government was getting corrupt. Julius Caesar wanted to become Dictator for life, and the republic went downhill from there.