Although Turkey's population is 99% Muslim, it is a secular republic founded by Turkey's national hero and first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (considered the greatest leader of all times). Turkey is relatively liberal compared to other Middle Eastern countries but that's not saying very much. Turkey is not as extreme as say Saudi Arabia or Iran and Afghanistan under the Taliban, still Turkey prevented its citizens accessing the Website of Richard Dawkins because some Muslim thought it was blasphemous.  for a time  Turkey is democratic but has a bad Human rights record. Neither Turkey nor the Europeans are sure if they really want to get together. 
Turkey was the home of ancient communities since the Babylonian fertile crescent days, and soon became a trading hub for the Phoenicians and Greeks. Persia controlled most of this so-called Asia Minor until the Roman Empire took over. The Romans introduced a great sense of organization, and Turkey was Christianized before Rome. After the fall of Rome, the Byzantine Empire still held Turkey until the Ottoman Turks (named after their legendary founder, Osman) took over. Turkey then became the Ottoman Empire, most people in Turkey became Muslims, and they pwned the Balkans, North Africa, and Arabia continuously until the Balkan Wars, in which all was lost. After World War 1, all of Turkey's Arabian lands were given to France and Britain, and Asia Minor became Turkeï. In World War 2, Turkey was neutral, and now continues its peaceful existence.